The debug info will give me a lot of information about how your site is configured and will help me understand the source of the problem.
To translate the 'read more' button. Please try the following steps:
-go to WPML > Theme and plugins localization. Be sure that 'Translate themes and plugins using WPML's String Translation only (don't load .mo files)' is selected.
-under Strings in the themes section, select your theme.
-click 'Scan selected themes for strings'
-go to WPML > String Translation
-find and translate the string. check 'translation is complete' . click 'save'
If you still can't find the string, It could be that these strings are stored in the admin texts.
Please go to WPML > String Translation and scroll down to the bottom of the page and click on the link "Translate texts in admin screens »". Then, scroll through that page and see if you find the the string. If so, tick the checkbox and click Apply to add it to the String Translation table. Now you can go back to WPML > String Translation and you should see the string added there.
According to our support rules, we are able to handle only one issue per ticket. So I will split the tickets to cover your 2nd and 3rd questions and will check it out in a few moments. This helps us to bring you a better service and also help other users with similar problems to find solutions when searching the forum.